Linguistic Isolation

Summary: The percentage of households that are linguistically isolated by immigration status, and by race and ancestry for immigrant households. A household is considered to be linguistically isolated when no member age 14 years or older speaks only English or speaks English at least “very well.” Data for 2010 and 2018 represent five-year averages (e.g. 2014-2018). Immigration status is estimated based on an approach developed by the Equity Research Institute.

Data Source(s): Integrated Public Use Microdata Series, IPUMS USA, University of Minnesota, www.ipums.org, 2000 5% sample, 2010 and 2018 American Community Survey 5-year samples.

Universe: All households.

Methods: The number and percentage of linguistically isolated (also referred to as limited English speaking) households were calculated by immigration status, race and ancestry for each year and geography. A household is considered to be linguistically isolated when no member age 14 years or older speaks only English or speaks English at least “very well.” See the methodology page for other relevant notes.

Notes: 

  • Immigration status, race and ancestry are based on that of the householder.
  • Data for 2010 and 2018 represent 2006-2010 and 2014-2018 averages, respectively.
  • Immigration status is estimated using a probability model (not self-reported). See here for details.

Naturalization

Summary: The naturalization rate by race and the eligible-to-naturalize adult population by race, education level and ancestry. The naturalization rate is calculated as the ratio of naturalized adults to the sum of naturalized and eligible-to-naturalize adults. Eligible-to-naturalize adults are those noncitizen adults who are estimated to be eligible to naturalize but have not yet done so, based on an approach developed by the Equity Research Institute. Data represent a 2014-2018 average.

Data Source(s): Integrated Public Use Microdata Series, IPUMS USA, University of Minnesota, www.ipums.org, 2018 American Community Survey 5-year sample.

Universe: All naturalized citizens and eligible-to-naturalize adults.

Methods: The naturalization rate is calculated as the ratio of naturalized adults to the sum of naturalized and eligible-to-naturalize adults. The naturalization rate and the eligible-to-naturalize adult population were calculated by race, ancestry, and educational attainment for each geography. See the methodology page for other relevant notes.

Notes: 

  • Latinos include people of Hispanic origin of any race and all other groups exclude people of Hispanic origin.
  • The term "eligible to naturalize" refers to lawful permanent resident adults age 18 or older who are eligible to naturalize and gain U.S. citizenship.
  • Data represent a 2014-2018 average.
  • Immigration status is estimated using a probability model (not self-reported). See here for details.

Voting

Summary: The number of registered voters as of September 2020 and the turnout rate in the 2018 presidential election by immigration status and race. The turnout rate reflects the percentage of currently registered voters in each geography (as of September 2020) that voted in the 2018 presidential election, regardless of whether they were living in the same place in 2018 or were eligible to vote.

Data Source(s): Political Data, Inc., politicaldata.com.

Universe: All U.S. citizens registered to vote as of September 2020.

Methods: Political Data Inc. data files for each racial/ethnic and nativity group were downloaded from the PDI website for the 2008, 2010, 2012, 2014, 2016, and 2018 general elections at the state, county and city/place levels. Data was aggregated by nativity and geography type. All excess data from place files was removed so that only city level data was used. Total votes by year were then divided by total currently registered voters as of September 2020 to derive a measure of total votes as a share of currently registered voters. Data for geographies and demographic groups was set to missing if based on fewer than 30 registered voters or if less than 75 percent of all registered voters for a racial/ethnic group had valid nativity information within a given geography. See the methodology page for other relevant notes.

Notes: 

  • Racial/ethnic identification of data on registration and voting is only available for the following groups: Italian, Russian, Armenian, Iranian, Arab, Black, Portuguese, Latino, Indian, Other Southeast Asian, Vietnamese, Filipino, Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Pacific Islander. It is imputed based on surnames and data fields.
  • Nativity information is based on the listed countries of origin on voter registration forms and is sometimes missing.
  • Data by nativity is based on registered voters for which nativity information is available, while data for all voters (immigrant and U.S. born combined) is based on all registered voters.
  • No data is reported if based on fewer than 30 registered voters or if nativity information is reported for less than 75 percent of all registered voters as of September 2020.